First battery in secondary boxWavedriver under the hoodSecondary battery boxBattery box empty2005 Palo Alto EV show and rallyELEC - TRUCK lettering with prism effectInstalling regs on batteries
OwnerCor van de Water
(former owner, EV has been sold)
Owner's Other EVsSchwinn Sierra
Blue 2002 Toyota Prius
2004 Reva Maini
Currie Phat Flyer
1989 Ford Ranger
1999 EVGlobal
PowerSmart ladies bike
Green 2002 Toyota Prius
2001 Toyota Prius
LocationMountain View, California United States map
Web/EmailWebPage email image
Vehicle1994 Chevrolet S-10
US Electricar conversion - converted with a WaveDriver inverter that can sync to the grid to charge from 3-phase
MotorHughes Vector 3-Phase AC
3 phase AC, 50 kW
Drivetrainclutchless manual transmission, fixed in 2nd gear, "automatic" user interface through stick on steering column.
ControllerWavedriver VFD 700EV250
Prototype motor controller, was used for V2G (Vehicle to Grid), stationary motors and for utility vehicle installations. Capable of 700V and 250A DC power.
Batteries26 Universal Batteries UB121100, 12.00 Volt, Lead-Acid, AGM
110 Ah
System Voltage312 Volts
integrated in controller, 20 kW, 208 VAC 3-phase input.
Due to unavailability of 3-phase at home I am adding an auxiliary charger.
Heaterwaste heat from the motor and controller water-cooling runs through heater core (Patented). I even disabled the radiator fan, but still the efficiency of the electric drivetrain prevents any noticeable heating in the cab. I'll have to install a ceramic heater, powered by the batteries, to stay warm in winter.
DC/DC ConverterWavedriver
integrated in controller, broken, to be replaced with Dell server PSU, now using Yellow Top aux battery in deep cycle operation.
InstrumentationSOC meter (useless because it resets to battery voltage every time vehicle is started), aux battery voltage, temperature (always stuck at low)
Top Speed72 MPH (115 KPH)
Range80 Miles (128 Kilometers)
Certainly more than my initial guess of 60 miles as I drove 62.5 miles on Aug 15, 2006 and the pack was still at 314.4V (12.1V per battery).
NOTE: this is range "to death", which leads to early battery failure. Normal daily driving should best be half of this.
Watt Hours/Mile285 Wh/Mile
Measured at 101 Freeway along the SF Bay area, flat road, constant 55 mph,
about 50A, 312V.
With total drive cycle (accelerations and climbs) included it is closer to 400 Wh/mi and wall to wheel efficiency is approximately 2 mi per kWh.
EV Miles
Start:1,039 Miles (1,671 Kilometers)
Current:10,532 Miles (16,945 Kilometers)
Total:9,493 Miles (15,274 Kilometers)
Seating Capacity2 adults (3 if you are good friends)
Curb Weight4,880 Pounds (2,218 Kilograms)
2280 lbs front
2600 lbs rear
With 4 batteries behind rear axle
TiresP205/75R15 Uniroyal Tigerpaw at 50 PSI (768 rev per mile)
Conversion TimeNo conversion, it was an EV from date of delivery. I fixed a problem in the electronic circuit, added a small battery box and loaded 26 AGMs. And made battery cables. Now I am designing a battery monitoring/regulation circuit and still need to give the on-board charger a decent place behind the seat, instead of sitting on the passenger seat.
Conversion Cost$2200 batteries and about one hundred more for the battery cabling parts plus $250 for the battery box.
Additional FeaturesIn theory this vehicle is capable of supplying the grid with as many amps as the motor, to do this there is a 3-phase Change-over-Switch that connects the controller output to either the motor or the charge plug.
NOTE: it is a modified European AVCON for 3-phase high current. Spec from the manufacturer/re-converter was that it should be able to supply 60A 208V (20kW) to a 3-phase grid.
This vehicle was a prototype conversion for PG&E to demonstrate V2G.
Currently building a BMS (Battery Management System) that will measure the voltage of the batteries and when higher than 13.7V (minus 20 mV per deg) then it will enable a current bypass to push the battery into balance with other batteries in the string that are not yet fully charged. Bypass current is only 0.5A. When a battery goes below 10.5V a red LED will be lit at the dashboard to warn the driver that a battery is low and current draw must be reduced to avoid damage.
Ongoing test of these 110 Ah AGM batteries, as far as I know I am the first to use these batteries in an EV. They are in the original (Hawker) battery box plus an extra battery box for the last 4 batteries, as only 22 fitted in the original box. Working on a good charger as I have no 3-phase grid connection and charge profile cannot be set properly in controller.
After testing at PG&E this vehicle was sold privately, I found it in an EAA member's driveway without batteries or cabling and with a problem in the unique Change-over-Switch.

code by jerry