driver's compartmentgroup 27crossmemberunderhoodrear compartmentinstrumentation
OwnerManuel Vierra
LocationSeattle, Washington United States map
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Vehicle1991 Jeep Wrangler
sturdy and simple
MotorD&D Motor Systems, Inc. ES-31B Series Wound DC
6.7" dia., 72 to 144 vdc
DrivetrainNP 231 transfer case, Dana front and rear axle
ControllerCurtis 1221C
120 vdc, 400 amp
Batteries10 Car Quest DCG-31DT, 12.00 Volt, Lead-Acid, Flooded
group-31 deep-cycle manufactured by East Penn
System Voltage120 Volts
ChargerSchumacher 10 amp, 12vdc
ten automotive chargers. April 2010: Have added a charge regulator for each battery/charger unit.
DC/DC Converter
Kirkland group-24 deep-cycle battery
and 1 Carquest 1.5 amp battery tender
Instrumentationsystem voltage meter, speedometer and odometer
Top Speed35 MPH (56 KPH)
35 mph in low-range, car left in 4wd low-range but with front axle decoupled. 4wd still functional by coupling front axle.
Accelerationexcellent to about 20 mph
Range20 Miles (32 Kilometers)
theoretical -- I have driven it as far as 13 miles, but it is intended for use to and from work and I have other cars to drive longer distances with.
EV Miles
Start:75,880 Miles (122,090 Kilometers)
Current:77,893 Miles (125,329 Kilometers)
Total:2,013 Miles (3,238 Kilometers)
    As of 12/30/2012
Seating Capacity2 adults
Curb Weight2,900 Pounds (1,318 Kilograms)
Just weighed it today, 06/25/08.
Tires225/75 x15 all season radials
Conversion Time1 year, 9 months so far
Conversion Cost$2,000 car, $6,400 conversion, includes some upgrades to the car separate from the conversion.
Additional Featurespart-time 4-wheel drive, no power anything.
July 2007: A nice car with a bad transmission and just four cylinders. Mounted motor directly to transfer case and will run in low. Presently need 5 miles to work and have opportunity to charge there. Can add speed and range in future if needed -- vehicle's GVWR is 4,300 pounds.

September 2007: I originally started with a 72 volt set-up, but Seattle being a city of hills the 72 volt system was not up to the task. The car now runs 108 volts and will hold 20 mph for the final climb on my way home. The extra range from additional batteries is a nice benefit and acceleration is great. The entire system is under stressed. Nothing runs more than slightly warm to the touch.

April 2008: Took the opportunity to upgrade batteries and system voltage -- now running 120 volts. The car is pretty much finished and I have been very pleased with it.

Spring 2010: Added charge regulators. I'm looking forward to the day I can install some sort of lithium battery.

code by jerry